In numerous Neolithic relics of China, it is remarkable that thousands crosses on the painted pottery are excavated，such as †,╬,etc,and lasted about 2500 years(4500-4000 B.C.).Even in one grave at Liuwan of Qinghai Province, 116 crosses are excavated. Another popular Neolithic pattern is 卐. I think the meaning of or 卐 is “without inclination to either side”, the primitive doctrine of the mean (China), the literal meaning is “the Country situated in the middle of world”, not porcelain. In Prehistory China, Chinese perhaps believe they situated not only in the middle of world but also in the cosmos, each clan believe where they are residing is the center of cosmos.The following are 5 mysterous centers:
(1) Anyang(安阳)：situated in northern Henan Province.Shang Clan,who created the Shang Dynasty(1523B.C-1027B.C),divided their country into five parts:East Land,West Land,South Land,North Land and Central Shang. Central Shang had another name“Sacred Shang”.Shang Clan was named after Shang,the holy birthplace .Because the late capital of Shang Dynasty was Anyang,perhaps Anyang was the cosmic center of Shang Clan.
(2) Qishan(岐山)：situated in Shanxi Province,in the western part of China. Qishan is the cradle of Zhou Clan who established Zhou Dynasty in 1227 B.C. Qishan is also called Tianzhu Mountan(天柱山)，“Tianzhu”means the pillar of cosmos.
(3) Luoyang: situated in western Henan Province,in the central part of China.When Zhou Clan who founded Zhou Dynasty in 1227 B.C.,they choose Hao,a city not far from Qishan,for the capital.At the same time, Zhou Dynasty choose for another capital, Luoyang ,because one mystical prophesy goes that Luoyang is the center of cosmos. Luoyang may be regarded as China’s Jerusalem.
(4) Kunlun: situated in the south of Shanxi Province, then it’s name spread all in the western part of China. Kunlun as the center of cosmos was writern by Shanhaijin,the most famous mythology collects of China.
(5) Qi: situated in Shandong Province,in the estern part of China. Qi (齐)means human’s navel,therefore refer to the center of cosmos.
When Luoyang became China’s Jerusalem, people who lived in Luoyang or close to Luoyang thought them Central Civilized，others Four Barbarians(including East Barbarian,South Barbarian,West Barbarian and North Barbarian).In fact, Four Barbarians had their cosmic centers.By analysing different cosmic centers,I try to trace different clans who had different cosmic centers.
China has 55 ethnic minorities in adition Han Chinese. For example, I’m a Tujia ethnic minority. Are there 56 cosmic centers in Early China? It’s an interesting question remains to be solved.
Wu Rui’s Main publications (All in Chinese)
(1)A Critical Biography of Qian Xuantong,Jiangxi Baihuazhou Press,1996. 356 pages.[ Qian Xuantong (1887-1939)is one of the founder of Gushibian School]
(2)Qing Dynasty Academy of Classical Learning,People’s Press of Liaoning,1997.
(3)The Origin of Chinese Thought,Shandong Educational Press,2003.1350 pages.
(4)Chinese Theologic Tradition and the Oringin of Taoism,Taiwan Sanmin Press,
(1) Anthology of Essays In Commemoration of the 60th Jubilee the Academic Activities of Prof.Yang Xiangkui, Hebei Educational Press, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province,December,1998.800 pages
(2)Gushikao(classified Papers about Chinese ancient history),Hainan Press,2003. 5240 pages
(3)The Chinese Classical Study of Post-Gushibian School,Taiwan Tangshan Press,2006.466 pages.
(4) China Antiqua,Vol.1, Hainan Press,2008. 635 pages.(I’am the major author also)
(5) China Antiqua,Vol.2, Jilin University Press,2009. 605 pages.
Ku Shih Pien(or Gushibian,7 volumes),the Bible of Ku Shih Pien School,edited by Ku Chieh-kang(1893-1980) et al.
IV.academic theses(58 pieces,the contents are too long to omit)
Main translations (English to Chinese)：
1.“Building the State,Making the Nation:The Bases and Limits of State Centraliza
-tion in ‘Modern’Peru”, written by David Nugent（Department of Anthropology,
Colby College）, original Published in American Anthropologist, No. 2, 1994. Chinese edition Published in Anthology of Essays In Commemoration of the 60th Jubilee the Academic Activities of Prof.Yang Xiangkui, Hebei Educational Press, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province,December,1998
2. “Legitimization of the State in Inca Myth and Ritual”, written by Brian S. Bauer（Department of Anthropology,University of Illinois at Chicago）, original Published in American Anthropologist, No. 2, 1996. Chinese edition Published in Anthology of Essays In Commemoration of the 60th Jubilee the Academic Activities of Prof.Yang Xiangkui, Hebei Educational Press,Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province,December,1998
- China Antiqua
- especially intellectual history and religion history before A.D.220
Country of origin
Period of stay at IIAS
How did Thought Grow develop in Early China?